Handbook of Language and Literacy Development - a Roadmap from 0 to 60 Months

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glossary

Narrative Development (0-60 Months)click to print Print

Written by: Carole Peterson, Beulah Jesso, Memorial University of Newfoundland and Anne McKeough, University of Calgary

Attachment – the strong affectional tie that humans have with the special people in their lives

Autobiographical memory – representations of special, one-time events that are long-lasting and particularly meaningful to the self

Causal reasoning – the ability to understand cause and effect relationships

Childhood amnesia – the relative absence of memory before 3 years of age

Cognition – thinking; the process of gaining knowledge

Decontexualized speech – speaking about things that are not in one’s present environment

Displaced reference – referring to things that happened in another time and place

Episodic memory – memory for personally-experienced events

Extended talk – talk that is not restricted to care and socialization but rather includes talk about the past, the future, explanations, descriptions, and so on.

Fictional narratives – narratives that are based on non-true events such as those found in storybooks

Grammar – the way sentences are constructed

Lexicon – the vocabulary of a particular language

Literacy – the ability to read and write

Memory – the mental capacity of retaining and recalling facts, events, etc.

Mental verbs – verbs that describe cognitive processes such as ‘think,’ ‘remember,’ or ‘pretend’

Narrative – a story or account of past events

Orientation to a narrative’s context – providing information about the context of the events being described in a narrative, such as where they took place, when, and who was there

Personal narrative – a story or account of events that the narrator has experienced personally

Reminiscing – to recall past experience or events

Scaffolding – a changing quality of support over a teaching session, in which adults adjust the assistance they provide to fit the child’s current level of performance

Schema – a “mental blueprint” that provides an overall plan for thinking about something

Scripts – general representation of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. A basic means through which children organize and interpret familiar everyday experiences

Sense of self – an awareness of one’s self as an independent being

Social scripts - representations or ‘blueprints’ of frequently occurring social events

Syntax - the order in which words, phrases, and clauses are used in sentences

Temporal reasoning – the ability to understand time-ordered sequences

Theory of Mind – Children’s belief (or ‘theory’) about what is in the mind of another person

Topic extending – to remain on a single topic for a period of time

Verbal accessibility of memories – ability to recall and talk about events that happened in the past

Vocabulary - the words we use to think and communicate